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Full counting statistics of the interference contrast from independent Bose-Einstein condensates

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The visibility in a matter wave interference experiment with two independent Bose-Einstein condensates is different in each realization. It provides a measure of the respective condensate fractions. Its probability distribution therefore reflects the full counting statistics of the condensed atom number. The visibility is a self-averaging observable only in the presence of long range phase coherence. Explicit results for the distributions are given for two-dimensional Bose gases, deep in the superfluid regime and close to the transition temperature, where the visibility reflects the universal order parameter distribution in the vicinity of the critical point.

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