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Fractal Timing: Improving Life Support Devices by the Addition of Biological Noise

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Fractal analysis techniques have provided worthwhile insights into our understanding of fundamental physiological processes [1,2]. Various fractal approaches have been applied to time series in fMRI, MEG and EEG studies [3,4,5]. Here I will present work focused on using fractal time sequences to improve standard life support devices such as mechanical ventilators and cardiopulmonary bypass pumps [6]. Such life support devices are usually monotonous in their output. Adding fractal or biological noise to the life support device can improve performance based on various indices [7,8]. MR imaging of the brain during cardiopulmonary bypass will be discussed [9]. Finally, current work examining ‘resting state’ MR signals during propofol sedation using various fractal analysis techniques will be described.

References: 1. West, G. B., Brown, J. H. & Enquist, B. J. A general model for the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology. Science. 276, 122–126 (1997). 2. West, B. J. & Grigolini, P. The Living Matter Way to exchange information. Medical hypotheses 75, 475–8 (2010). 3. Hu, J., Lee, J. M., Gao, J., White, K. D. & Crosson, B. Assessing a signal model and identifying brain activity from fMRI data by a detrending-based fractal analysis. Brain Struct.Funct. 212, 417–426 (2008). 4. Maxim, V. et al. Fractional Gaussian noise, functional MRI and Alzheimer’s disease. NeuroImage 25, 141–58 (2005). 5. Achard, S., Bassett, D. S., Meyer-Lindenberg, A. & Bullmore, E. Fractal connectivity of long-memory networks. Physical Review E 77 , 1–12 (2008). 6. Brewster, J. F., Graham, M. R. & Mutch, W. A. C. Convexity, Jensen’s inequality and benefits of noisy mechanical ventilation. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society 2, 393–6 (2005). 7. Boker, A. et al. Improved arterial oxygenation with biologically variable or fractal ventilation using low tidal volumes in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Critical Care Medicine (2002).doi:10.1164/rccm.2108006 8. Mutch, W. A. C. et al. Biologically variable pulsation improves jugular venous oxygen saturation during rewarming. Ann.Thorac.Surg. 69, 491–497 (2000). 9. Mutch, W. A. C. et al. Cerebral hypoxia during cardiopulmonary bypass: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Ann.Thorac.Surg. 64, 695–701 (1997).

This talk is part of the Brain Mapping Unit Networks Meeting and the Cambridge Connectome Consortium series.

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